Black pepper became a supreme spice that catalyzed much of the spice marketing. It cultivated from the pepper plant, a glossy wooden vine that can lengthen up to 33 feet in hot and sticky tropical climates. They start to bring small white clustered flowers after 3 to 4 years and grow into berries known as peppercorns. Black pepper, green pepper and white peppercorns are from the same fruit (Piper nigrum); the difference in their color is image of varying stages of development and organizing methods. Black peppercorns are made by picking the pepper berries when they are half mature and about to turn red. They are then left to dry which causes them to shrink and become dark in color. Black pepper is the most sour and flavorful of different types of peppers and it is available as whole or cracked peppercorns or ground into powder.
A peppercorn when dried, is approximately 5 millimeters (0.20 in) in diameter, dark red when fully mature, and, like all drupes, holds a single seed. Black Pepper was trusted to cure illness such as diarrhea, earache, gangrene, heart disease, hernia, hoarseness, indigestion, insect bites, insomnia, joint pain, liver problems, lung disease, oral abscesses, sunburn, tooth decay, and tooth aches.